持久性有机污染物(POPs)

2015-5-8

加入#疯狂泡泡斯#

为庆祝世界范围内“持久性有机污染物“(Persistent Organic Pollutants ,POPs或泡泡斯)项目成功实施十周年,联合国开发计划署驻华代表处和中华人民共和国环境保护部环境保护对外合作中心(以下简称“环境保护对外合作中心”)共同发起了一个以阻击23种持久性有机污染物(以下简称“阻击POPs”)为主题的国际性宣传活动。

1.     观看POPs动画,并用#疯狂泡泡斯#将它分享给身边的每一个人

2.     下载“疯狂泡泡斯”手机游戏,体验游戏并分享游戏经验就有机会赢取定制版POPs帆布袋、圆珠笔、马克杯及其他精美礼品。

3.     阅读下文并了解更多有关POPs的知识。

什么是POPS?

持久性有机污染物(POPs)是一系列产生于工业生产中的高危污染物,具有环境持久性、生物累积性、长距离迁移能力和高生物毒性。2001年,100多个国家签订了《关于持久性有机污染物的斯德哥尔摩公约》(以下简称“《斯德哥尔摩公约》”),并确认了首批12种持久性有机污染物名单。随后,又有多种污染物增列其中,截至目前,《斯德哥尔摩公约》列出了合计23种POPs。比较常见的POPs有多氯联苯(PCBs)、二噁英及滴滴涕(DDT)等。举例而言,在中国,DDT被加入在海用防腐漆料之中,其通过毒杀固着生物形成毒性防腐层是来实现防腐目的。然而这些防腐材料的使用会污染水体,破坏海洋生物多样性,损害海洋食物链并威胁海洋生态平衡和人类健康。每年,中国都要使用约6.5万吨防腐漆料,其中30万艘分布于中国海岸线的渔船每年就要消耗掉1万吨防腐漆料,而这1万吨漆料中约一半都是以滴滴涕(DDT)为基料的。

为什么POPs是有害的呢?

POPs能够通过空气长距离迁移,因此它所能影响的地域并不仅限于其发源地。更重要的是,POPs会在包括牛奶、奶酪等有机质或食物链中发生沉积,在食物链上被不断传递。POPs也能够穿过胎盘并因此影响胚胎的发育。有研究显示,胎儿和婴儿的发育紊乱、学习及行为障碍、生育缺陷、免疫系统紊乱以及其他一些疾病都与接触上述有毒污染物有着重要联系。POPs不可避免地威胁着人类健康与生态系统。

通过倡议和政府措施,中国于2009年禁止了一系列含滴滴涕(DDT)、灭蚁灵和氯丹等POPs产品的生产、使用和交易。寻求替代POPs的产品的努力对于我们而言是当下的任务也是未来努力的方向。

与我们一起

  • 来一起聊聊吧!关注我们的微博(@undpchina)和微信公众号(undpchina),了解相关活动最新消息,#疯狂泡泡斯#,与我们分享你阻击POPs的故事与经验,加入我们的讨论。

23种POPs

Slide
Aldrin is a nasty pesticide used in soils to kill bugs! Aldrin is used to kill termites, grasshoppers, other small insects, therefore threatening birds, fish and potentially humans. Avoid touching daily supplies or animal products exposed to Aldrin. China has never produced large amounts of Aldrin.
Slide
DDT, an organic-chlorine pesticide, is used for pest control in cotton, fruit trees and vegetables. Food-borne DDT remains the greatest form of exposure to humans so watch what you’re eating! In China the production, trade, use and import/export of DDT has been banned.
Slide
Endrin is an insecticide used to control crop pests and rodents such as mice and voles. Endrin is highly toxic to fish and other marine life. It can enter the human body mainly through food. China has never produced large amounts of Endrin,
Slide
Mirex is an organic-chlorine pesticide used to combat fire ants, termites and other pests. In China, it is primarily used to control termites. The production, trade, use and import/export of Mirex has been banned in China.
Slide
Toxaphene is another insecticide used in cotton, cereal grains, fruits, nuts and vegetables. Terrible Toxaphene has also been used to control ticks and mites in livestock. Toxaphene is listed as a possible cancer-causing pollutant and has already been banned in China.
Slide
PCB compounds are a by-product of production processes, but are also used in a lot of industries, such as heat exchange fluids in electric transformers and capacitors. PCBs are linked to reproductive failure and suppression of the immune system in various animals - ultimately affecting humans! Production and use of PCBs has already been banned in China.
Slide
HexaBDE and HeptaBDE are mainly used as flame retardant additives. They build up in the food web and are highly toxic. China has never produced or used HexaBDE or HeptaBDE.
Slide
Alpha-HCH was once used as a pesticide, and was a by-product of Lindane. It’s been identified as a possible human carcinogen. China has stopped producing or using Alpha-HCH.
Slide
Beta-HCH is a brother to its Alpha counterpart once used as a pesticide, and was a by-product of Lindane. It’s been identified as a possible human carcinogen. China has stopped producing or using Beta-HCH.
Slide
PeCB is used in PCB products as a fungicide, a flame retardant and a chemical intermediate. It is also a non- intentional emissions by-product. What’s worse, it’s extremely toxic to marine life. PeCB was never produced or used as a pesticide in China.
Slide
PFOS is widely used in producing chrome plating fog inhibitor and light water-type firefighting foam. Except in specific circumstances the production, trade, use and import/export of PFOS has been banned in China.
Slide
Endosulfan is an insecticide widely used in pest control for cotton, fruit trees, vegetables, tobacco, tea and other crops, as well as in wood preservatives. It is toxic to humans, as well as marine and terrestrial organisms. Except in some specific circumstances the production, trade, use and import/export of Endosulfan is banned in China.
Slide
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant primarily used in thermal insulation. It adversely affects metabolism and reproduction in animals.
Slide
TetraBDE and PentaBDE are mainly used as flame retardant additives, and are toxic to wildlife. China has stopped producing TetraBDE and PentaBDE.
Slide
Lindane was used as a broad-spectrum insecticide for seed, soil, tree and wood treatments, and against ectoparasites in both veterinary and human applications. Lindane bio-accumulates easily in the food web, bio-concentrates rapidly and can negatively affect human health. Manufacturing Lindane is banned, and it can no longer be registered as a pesticide in China.
Slide
Hexabromobiphenyl is a kind of industrial flame retardant, identified as a possible human carcinogen. It was never used or produced in China.
Slide
PCDF is a non-intentional emission by-product created by waste incineration, papermaking, metallurgy, and production processes for the regeneration of non-ferrous metals. PCDF will accumulate in food, especially animal products, and harm human health.
Slide
HCB is an insecticide, also used as an intermediate in organic synthesis or formed as a by-product of certain industrial chemicals. In China, the production, circulation, use and import/export of HCB have been banned.
Slide
Chlordecone is a synthetic organic-chlorine pesticide used to produce Mirex. Chlordecone is very toxic to marine life and has been identified as a possible human carcinogen. China has never produced or used Chlordecone.
Slide
Dieldrin is a vicious compound mainly used to control termites and pests in soil. Dieldrin is highly toxic to fish and other marine life. China has never produced large amounts of Dieldrin.
Slide
PCDD is classified as a non-intentional emission by-product, and mainly comes from waste incineration, papermaking, metallurgy, and production processes for the regeneration of non-ferrous metals. PCDD chemicals are classed as possible human carcinogens.
Slide
Chlordane is used as an insecticide on crops and for termite control. Chlordane lingers in the soil for a long time and affects fish and birds. It also harms the human immune system and is classed as a possible human carcinogen. In China, the production, circulation, use and import/export of Chlordane have been banned.
Slide
Heptachlor is primarily used to kill soil insects and termites as well as crop pests and nasty malaria-carrying mosquitoes. Heptachlor is a possible human carcinogen. China has banned the production of Heptachlor.

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